Rural Technology refers to development of sustainable and economic technologies that address the needs of rural areas.
India has seen a drastic shift in lifestyle and culture after Globalization. Since, the emergence of computers and information technology, our lives have changed completely. Over the decade, the development of a country has become more technology dependent. India has progressed a lot in technology and infrastructure since past 50 years. Still, it comes under the category of developing nation. According to 2011 Census of India, 83.3 crore of population lives in rural areas. That is, approx 70% of Indian population is rural. These stats clearly show why Rural Technology has become the need of hour for us.
Aim of Rural Technology
Rural Technology aims to develop technologies that are required in day to day lives of rural population. Therefore, it covers the wide field of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Power Generation, Infrastructure and Resource Management. Moreover, it presses more on the use of sustainable technology that do not hamper the natural climate. With the ongoing Digital India Mission, it has become more focused on improving communication and transport systems in rural areas. As we know, that agriculture is the backbone of rural as well as Indian economy. Still today our farmers are largely dependent on monsoon for their harvests. Therefore, rural technology is largely based on methods of farming and irrigation.
Technology Used in Rural Development
Rural technology is dependent majorly on following segments for its development works. They are : 1. Developing new methods of irrigation 2. Technology development for building infrastructure 3. Efficient and less monsoon dependent methods of farming 4. Recycle and management of waste 5. Creating independent power generation for villages 6. Renewal of existing water resources and ground water recharge
Impact of Rural Technology in India
With the onset of Green Revolution and White (Milk) revolution, rural scenario has changed completely. India has now become the highest milk producer and exporter throughout the world. Also, many states of north became flourished and prosperous after the Green Revolution. Though, at that time there were many loopholes in these missions. Still, they were successful in creating mass awareness and taking technology to core Indian villages. Development of Irrigation facilities has decreased the dependency on monsoon to a large extent. It is estimated that about 35% of agricultural land comes under irrigation. That is, 64.7 million hectares of land is irrigated in India. Indira Gandhi Canal is one of the largest and most ambitious canal project of India. Although, it was constructed to irrigate Thar desert and other drought prone regions of Rajasthan. Yet, it covers a total of 5,28,000 hectares of agricultural lands of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
Government Initiatives for developing Rural Technology
All the premier institutes of India like IITs, IIMs and IRMA are conducting graduate and post graduate courses in Rural Technology and Development. Government of India has also established world class institutes of food and dairy technology to encourage research in this area. NIFTEM, NDRI Karnal are few examples of such institutes. Indian Government has also launched multiple schemes for development of Rural Technology. The main aim of these programs is to develop skill among rural population and prepare them for technological advancements. Some of these initiatives are as follows: 1. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGRY) 2. Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana 3. Pradhan Mantri Aawas Yojana ( Gramin) 4. Prime Minister Rural Development Fellowship 5. National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)